Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
When evaluating an entity for consolidation, the Company first determines whether an entity is a variable interest entity (“VIE”). If the entity is deemed to be a VIE, the Company consolidates those VIEs for which the Company is the primary beneficiary. The Company will also consolidate an entity not deemed a VIE upon determination that the Company has a controlling financial interest. For entities where the Company does not have a controlling financial interest, the investments in such entities are accounted for using the equity or cost method, as appropriate.

Refer to Note 3—Revenue Recognition for full details of the Company’s revenue recognition policies.
The Company considers highly-liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.

The largest portion of the Company’s restricted cash relates to securitizations. The remaining portion is comprised of escrow deposits and insurance funds on deposit.

Securitizations. In accordance with the contractual requirements of the Company’s various vacation ownership contract receivables (“VOCR”) securitizations, a dedicated lockbox account, subject to a blocked control agreement, is established for each securitization. At each month end, the total cash in the collection account from the previous month is analyzed and a monthly servicer report is prepared by the Company. This report details how much cash should be remitted to the note holders for principal and interest payments, and any cash remaining is transferred by the trustee to the Company. Additionally, as required by various securitizations, the Company holds an agreed-upon percentage of the aggregate outstanding principal balances of the VOI contract receivables collateralizing the asset-backed notes in a segregated trust account as credit enhancement. Each time a securitization closes and the Company receives cash from the note holders, a portion of the cash is deposited in the trust account. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, restricted cash for securitizations totaled $83 million and $84 million.

Escrow Deposits. Laws in most United States (“U.S.”) states require the escrow of down payments on VOI sales, with the typical requirement mandating that the funds be held in escrow until the rescission period expires. As sales transactions are consummated, down payments are collected and are subsequently placed in escrow until the rescission period has expired. Rescission periods vary by state, but range on average from five to seven calendar days. In certain states, the escrow laws require that 100% of VOI purchaser funds (excluding interest payments, if any) be held in escrow until the deeding process is complete. Where possible, the Company utilizes surety bonds in lieu of escrow deposits. Similarly, laws in certain U.S. states require the escrow of advance deposits received from guests for vacations paid and not yet traveled through the Company’s Travel and Membership businesses. Such amounts are required to be held in escrow until the legal restriction expires, which varies from state to state. Escrow deposits were $48 million and $42 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021.

Funds on Deposit. The Company operates a captive insurance company which provides property insurance to Travel + Leisure Co. and its affiliates. Amounts received are maintained by a third party and released from this account as necessary to pay claims. Funds on deposit were $7 million and $2 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021.

Trade receivables
The Company provides for estimated bad debts based on its assessment of the ultimate ability to realize receivables, considering historical collection experience, the economic environment, and specific customer information. When the Company determines that an account is not collectible, the account is written-off to the allowance for doubtful accounts. The following table illustrates the Company’s allowance for doubtful accounts activity from continuing operations (in millions):
Year Ended December 31,
2022 2021 2020
Beginning balance $ 199  $ 221  $ 154 
Bad debt expense 83  127  125 
Write-offs (114) (149) (58)
Ending balance $ 168  $ 199  $ 221 

Vacation ownership contract receivables
In the Vacation Ownership segment, the Company provides for estimated VOCR defaults at the time of VOI sales by recording a provision for loan losses as a reduction of Vacation ownership interest sales on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). The Company assesses the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses related to these VOIs using a technique referred to as a static pool analysis. This analysis is based upon the historical performance of similar VOCRs and
incorporates more recent history of default information. Management prepares a model to track defaults for each year’s sales over the entire life of the contract receivable as a means to project future expected losses. A qualitative assessment is also performed to determine whether any external economic conditions or internal portfolio characteristics indicate an adjustment is necessary to reflect expected impacts on the contract receivables portfolio. If current or expected future conditions differ from the conditions in effect when the historical experience was generated, the Company adjusts the allowance for loan losses to reflect the expected effects of the current environment on the collectability of VOCRs. Due to the economic disruption resulting from COVID-19, during 2020 the Company estimated an additional loan loss allowance related to the impacts on its owners’ ability to repay their contract receivables. For additional details on the Company’s vacation ownership contract receivables, including information on the related allowances and the impact of COVID-19, see Note 9—Vacation Ownership Contract Receivables.

Inventory primarily consists of completed VOIs, VOIs under construction, land held for future VOI development, vacation exchange credits, and real estate interests sold subject to conditional repurchase. The Company applies the relative sales value method for relieving VOI inventory and recording the related cost of sales. Under the relative sales value method, cost of sales is recorded using a percentage ratio of total estimated development cost and VOI revenue, including estimated future revenue, incorporating factors such as changes in prices and the recovery of VOIs, generally as a result of contract receivable defaults. The effect of such changes in estimates under the relative sales value method is accounted for in each period as a current-period adjustment to inventory and cost of sales. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost, including capitalized interest, property taxes, and certain other carrying costs incurred during the construction process, or estimated fair value less costs to sell. There was no capitalized interest applied to inventory during 2022 and 2021. Capitalized interest related to inventory was less than $1 million during 2020.

Property and equipment (including leasehold improvements) are recorded at cost and presented net of accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation, recorded as a component of Depreciation and amortization on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss), is computed utilizing the straight-line method over the lesser of the lease terms or estimated useful lives of the related assets. Amortization of leasehold improvements, also recorded as a component of Depreciation and amortization, is computed utilizing the straight-line method over the lesser of the estimated benefit period of the related assets or the lease terms. Useful lives are generally 30 years for buildings, up to 20 years for leasehold improvements, up to 30 years for vacation rental properties, and range from three to seven years for furniture, fixtures and equipment.

The Company capitalizes the costs of software developed for internal use in accordance with the guidance for accounting for costs of computer software developed or obtained for internal use. Capitalization of software costs developed for internal use commences during the development phase of the project. The Company amortizes software developed or obtained for internal use on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life, which is generally three to five years, with the exception of certain enterprise resource planning, reservation, and inventory management software, which is up to 10 years. Such amortization commences when the software is substantially ready for its intended use.

The net carrying value of software developed or obtained for internal use was $145 million and $156 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021. Capitalized interest was $1 million, less than $1 million, and $1 million during 2022, 2021, and 2020.

The Company uses derivative instruments as part of its overall strategy to manage its exposure to market risks primarily associated with fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. As a matter of policy, the Company does not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. All derivatives are recorded at fair value either as assets or liabilities. Changes in fair value of derivatives not designated as hedging instruments and of derivatives designated as fair value hedging instruments are recognized in Operating income/(loss) and net interest expense, based upon the nature of the hedged item, on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). Changes in fair value of derivatives designated as cash flow hedging instruments are recorded as components of other comprehensive income. Amounts included in other comprehensive income are reclassified into earnings in the same period during which the hedged item affects earnings.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are calculated based upon the temporary differences between the financial statement and income tax bases of assets and liabilities using currently enacted tax rates. These differences are based upon estimated differences between the book and tax basis of the assets and liabilities for the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021. The Company recognizes the effects of changes in tax laws, or rates, as a component of income taxes from continuing operations within the period that includes the enactment date.

The Company’s deferred tax assets are recorded net of a valuation allowance when, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the recorded deferred tax assets will not be realized in future periods. Decreases to the valuation allowance are recorded as reductions to the Company’s provision for income taxes, and increases to the valuation allowance result in additional provision for income taxes. The realization of the Company’s deferred tax assets, net of the valuation allowance, is primarily dependent on estimated future taxable income. A change in the Company’s estimate of future taxable income may require a change to the valuation allowance.

For tax positions the Company has taken or expects to take in a tax return, the Company applies a more likely than not threshold, under which the Company must conclude that a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained, assuming that the position will be examined by the appropriate taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information, in order to recognize or continue to recognize the benefit. In determining the Company’s provision for income taxes, the Company uses judgment, reflecting its estimates and assumptions, in applying the more likely than not threshold. The Company classifies interest and penalties associated with unrecognized tax benefits as a component of Provision/(benefit) for income taxes on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss).

Advertising costs are expensed in the period incurred. Advertising costs were $30 million, $33 million, and $26 million in 2022, 2021, and 2020.

The Company measures all stock-based compensation awards using a fair value method and records the related expense in its Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss).

Assets such as customer lists, management agreements, and trademarks acquired by the Company are classified as intangible assets and recorded at their fair value as of the date of the acquisition and categorized as having either a finite life or an indefinite life. Assets deemed to have a finite life are assigned an appropriate useful life and amortized on a straight-line basis.

The Company has goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets recorded in connection with business combinations. The Company annually in the fourth quarter, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that the value of goodwill may be impaired, reviews the reporting units’ carrying values. This is done either by performing a qualitative assessment or a quantitative assessment, with an impairment being recognized only if a reporting unit’s fair value is less than carrying value. In any given year the Company can elect to perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is in excess of its carrying value. If it is not more likely than not that the fair value is in excess of the carrying value, or the Company elects to bypass the qualitative assessment, it would utilize the quantitative assessment. The qualitative factors evaluated include macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance, and the Company’s historical share price as well as other industry-specific considerations.

Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives are not subject to amortization. However, goodwill and other intangibles with indefinite lives are subject to fair value-based rules for measuring impairment, and resulting write-downs, if any, are reflected in Asset impairments/(recoveries), net on the Consolidated Statements of Income/(Loss). The Company has goodwill recorded at reporting units comprising its Vacation Ownership and Travel and Membership reportable segments. The Company completed its annual goodwill impairment test by performing a qualitative analysis for each of its reporting units as of October 1, 2022 and determined that no impairment exists.
The Company also evaluates the recoverability of its other long-lived assets, including property and equipment and amortizable intangible assets, if circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred. This analysis is performed by comparing the respective carrying values of the assets to the current and expected future cash flows, on an undiscounted basis, to be generated from such assets. Property and equipment is evaluated separately within each segment. If such analysis indicates that the carrying value of these assets is not recoverable, the carrying value of such assets is reduced to fair value.

The Company’s restructuring activities require it to make significant estimates in several areas including (i) expenses for severance and related benefit costs, (ii) the ability to generate sublease income, as well as its ability to terminate lease obligations, and (iii) contract terminations. The amount that the Company accrued as of December 31, 2022, represents its best estimate of the obligations incurred in connection with these actions, but could change due to various factors including market conditions or the outcome of negotiations with third parties.

Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers Acquired in a Business Combination. In October 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued guidance which requires companies to apply Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers to recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities from contracts with customers acquired in a business combination. This creates an exception to the general recognition and measurement principle in ASC 805 - Business Combinations. This generally will result in companies recognizing contract assets and contract liabilities at amounts consistent with those recorded by the acquiree immediately before the acquisition date. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendments should be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date. Early adoption is permitted. The Company early adopted this guidance during 2022, and it did not have a material impact on the Company's Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures.

Government Assistance. In November 2021, FASB issued guidance which requires business entities to provide certain disclosures when they have received government assistance and used a grant or contribution accounting model by analogy to other accounting guidance. The guidance became effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements or related disclosures.